Analysis of the surface of healthy and fluorotic human enamel using microhardness test

Ana Josefina Monjarás Ávila, Veronica Zavala Alonso, Grace Morales Alcocer, Gabriel Alejandro Martínez Castañón, Nuria Patiño Marín, Jorge Ramírez González


The microhardness is an essential property of tooth enamel; there may be many factors that alter or diminish this quality causing weakness, one of which is dental fluorosis. The aim of this study was evaluate the surface microhardness of fluorotic enamel compared with healthy enamel. Two hundred forty extracted human molars were classified into four groups: Healthy (H), mild (MI), moderate (MO) and severe (S) fluorosis according to the Dean index. All samples were analyzed by Micro Vickers Hardness Tester. Average, standard deviation and ranges were calculated for quantitative variables, the ANOVA and Tukey test was used to identify differences between groups. The mean values of surface microhardness in HVN were: H, 333.4; MI, 290.3; MO, 266.1; S, 252.0. The differences between mean surface microhardness among healthy group and fluorotic groups were statistically significant (p<0.05) This in vitro study confirms that surface microhardness decreased according to the severity of fluorosis.


Healthy enamel; flourosis enamel; surface microhardness test

Full Text:



J. Murray, John Wright & Sons Ltd (1976) .

P. Den Besten, Adv Dent Res 8,105-110 (1994).

J. Wright, S. Chen, K. Hall, M. Yamauchi and J. Bawden, J Dent Res 75, 1936-1941 (1996).

B. Angmar Månsson, E. Jong, F. Sundstrom and J. Bosch, Adv Dent Res 8,75-79 (1994).

D. Clark, Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 22,148-152 (1994).

A. Mascarenhas, Pediatr Dent 22,269-277 (2000).

D. Pendrys, J Am Dent Assoc 131,746-755 (2000).

E. Everett , M. Mchenry, N. Reynolds, H. Eggertsson, J. Sullivan, C. Kantmann, E. Martínez Mier , J. Warrick and G. Stookey, J Dent Res 81,794-798 (2002).

V. Zavala Alonso, J. Loyola Rodríguez, H. Terrones , N. Patiño Marín, G. Martínez Castañón and K. Anusavice, J Oral Sci 54, 93-98 (2012).

A. Vieira, R. Hanocock , H. Eggertsson, E. Everett and M. Grynpas, Calcif Tissue Int 76,17–25 (2005).

V. Zavala Alonso, G. Martínez Castañón, N. Patiño Marín, H. Terrones, K. Anusavice, and J. Loyola Rodriguez, Microsc Microanal 16, 531-536 (2010).

C. Davidson, E. Hoekstra, and J. Arends, Caries Res 144,135-44 (1974).

E. Correa Olaya and M. Mattos Vela, Kiru 8, 88-96 (2011).

H. Dean, R. Dixon and C. Cohen, Public Health Reports (1896-1970) 50, 424-442 (1935).

A. Vieira, R. Hancock, H. Limeback, R. Maia and M. Grynpas, J Dent Res 83, 76-80 (2004).

A. Richards , S. Likimani, V. Baelum and O. Fejerskov, Caries Res 26, 328-332 (1992).

O. Fejerskov , M. Larsen and A. Richards, V. Baelum, Adv Dent Res 8,15-31 (1994).

J. Abanto Alvarez , K. Rezende , S. Salazar Marocho, F. Alves, P. Celiberti and A. Ciamponi, Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 1, 103-107 (2009).

M. Gutiérrez Salazar and J. Reyes Gasga, Material Research 6, 367-373 (2003).

R. Wang, Dent Mater 21, 429–436 (2005).

S. Hayashi Sakai, J. Sakai , M. Sakamoto and H. Endo, J Mater Sci Mater Med 23, 2047-2054 (2012).

A. Sakar-Deliormanli A and M. Güeden, Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater; 76,257-264 (2006).

S. Priydarshini, R. Ramya, A. Shetty, P. Gautham, S. Reddy and R. Srinivasan, J Conserv Dent 16, 203-207 (2013).

P. Waidyasekera , T. Nikaido, D. Weerasinghe, K. Wettasinghe and J. Tagami, J Dent 35, 343–349 (2007).

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 The authors. Licensee SMCTSM.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.